Ethereum vs EOS vs Cardano vs Rootstock – Smart Contract Platform Comparison and Review

Smart contract platforms permit builders to create absolutely decentralized dApps. Among the extra fashionable platforms are Ethereum, EOS, Cardano and Rootstock. On this article, we’ll go over these choices and clarify what’s distinctive about each. Let’s get began!



What Is Ethereum?

In contrast to Bitcoin, Ethereum is an ecosystem whose focus is to find new use circumstances for blockchain know-how. The Ethereum community is designed to permit anybody on the earth to construct dApps utilizing good contracts. These subsequent era purposes can function with no anticipated downtime, fraud, or interference by malicious actors. dApps are the primary promoting level of Ethereum and is the main focus of the ETH community.

What Is Ethereum’s Solidity Language?

In accordance with Solidity’s documentation:

“Solidity is an object-oriented, high-level language for implementing good contracts. Smart contracts are packages which govern the habits of accounts throughout the Ethereum state.”

The syntax has affect from C++, Python and Javascript. A lot of the ideas of Solidity are much like these in different object oriented coding languages, with a number of new options that permit purposes to work together with the Ethereum community.

What Is the Ethereum Digital Machine?

The Ethereum Digital Machine (EVM) is the runtime setting for good contracts on Ethereum. It’s sandboxed and utterly remoted, which means any code working within the EVM doesn’t have entry to the precise Ethereum community. The EVM has a number of ideas resembling Accounts, Transactions, Fuel, Storage, Message Calls, Create and even Self Destruct that assist it facilitate good contract purposes.

Ethereum’s Strengths and Weaknesses

Ethereum is the pioneer for good contract purposes. It was the primary cryptocurrency community to permit customers to code good contracts and execute them on the community. ETH’s important power is the truth that it has probably the most customers, builders, documentation and dApps on the community.

However, Ethereum’s important power can also be its weak point. As a result of Ethereum has probably the most customers, it’s community can also be congested more often than not. As such, any interactions with dApps price far more than they need to, and many occasions there’s a lengthy anticipate transaction affirmation. Fortunately, Ethereum block producers just lately raised the gasoline restrict by nearly 25%, which is corresponding to elevating the block measurement restrict for Bitcoin. As such, it relieved community congestion however will create extra bloat on the blockchain. Ethereum is trying to clear up this scalability difficulty by upgrading to ETH come January 2020. 



What Is EOS?

After Ethereum made the dApp ecosystem rather more fashionable, EOS grew to become the primary contender when it got here out with its personal digital machine and good contracting platform. In contrast to Ethereum, you didn’t should pay transaction charges – EOS doesn’t have an idea of Fuel. Furthermore, EOS had the potential of processing transactions at a a lot increased price than Ethereum. These two elements gave EOS extra consideration and led many individuals to imagine it to be a superior selection over Ethereum.

What Is EOS’ WebAssembly Digital Machine?

EOS good contracts are compiled to net meeting. Net Meeting is a brand new language that’s basically an enchancment on Javascript. WebAssembly permits purposes to be run in trendy browsers, and compile these apps from different languages resembling C++, C and Rust.

In comparison with Ethereum’s Solidity, WebAssembly apps could be tougher to code as a result of it requires data of C++, which might get fairly convoluted. Furthermore, since EOS is newer, there’s much less documentation and examples to work with in terms of implementing good contract dApps on the EOS blockchain.

EOS Strengths and Weaknesses

EOS emerged as a competitor to Ethereum ever because it’s introduction again in 2018 when it raised over $four.1 billion on its ICO.’s EOS ICO was a 12 months lengthy and ended up being the most important ICO in historical past! With a lot cash backing it, EOS was in a position to develop a powerful blockchain and with it some superior dApps.

Ethereum’s important drawback in comparison with EOS is the community congestion. Not solely does it render some dApps unusable throughout excessive visitors occasions, however some interactions with Ethereum dApps can price approach an excessive amount of. That is the place EOS is available in, not solely are there no transaction charges, however most dApp interactions happen immediately. This creates a significantly better expertise when utilizing EOS dApps. 

EOS additionally has its disadvantages in terms of Ethereum. For instance, as a result of there’s a steeper studying curve for growing dApps on EOS, there are much less killer dApps general on EOS than on Ethereum. Furthermore, as a result of EOS is newer there are much less customers which are prepared to check out EOS purposes.

The opposite difficulty with EOS is the semi-centralized nature of its platform. As a result of there are solely 21 block producers which are answerable for preserving the EOS blockchain working, it creates a really small group that may basically management the blockchain as they please. Whereas that centralization is definitely a drawback, that’s the caveat to having the ability to scale the EOS blockchain and course of such a excessive quantity of transactions.



What Is Cardano?

Cardano is a technological platform meant to run monetary purposes. Its native token is the ADA cryptocurrency and its blockchain makes use of a model new POS consensus system referred to as Ouroboros. Cardano is constructed with a scientific philosophy led by teachers and engineers. On account of its design, the POS system is mathematically confirmed to be very safe.

What Is Plutus?

In accordance with the Plutus documentation:

“Plutus offers an execution platform and practical programming language that runs on the Cardano settlement layer and offers appreciable safety benefits.”

Plutus is actually a sensible contract model of Haskell – a programming language that’s significantly troublesome to study. The primary difficulty with studying Haskell is that it’s a practical language fairly that an Object Oriented language like Javascript, C++, and most different trendy coding languages.

Cardano Strengths and Weaknesses

Cardano’s power lies in its community and good contract safety that comes from the way in which its community is engineered. Furthermore, Cardano’s ecosystem is concentrated on being interoperable, so it may possibly present cross platform help to many dApps on totally different chains.

The issue with Cardano in its present state is the dearth of usable dApps on the community. Cardano just lately launched its testnet again in June, however they’ve but to totally launch the platform.


rootstock logo

What Is Rootstock?

In accordance with RSK’s whitepaper:

“RSK is a platform that permits the execution of smart-contracts that use bitcoin because the native asset, contributing to Bitcoin’s worth because the main world cryptocurrency and increasing its attain to all potential use circumstances of dApps.”

The good contracts platform RSK, has its personal chain – referred to as a sidechain. Rootstock takes many options from Ethereum which permits it to be cross suitable with ETH dApps.

Since RSK has a two-way-peg with Bitcoin´s blockchain, Rootstock’s native tokens are referred to as “Smart Bitcoins” with a ticker of RBTC. RSK additionally offers Bitcoin miners extra incentives with merged mining. By offering their hashing energy, miners can additional monetize with out extra necessities.

Rootstock additionally has advantages in terms of Ethereum customers and builders. Notably, RSK is extraordinarily suitable with Ethereum dApps which permits builders to seamlessly switch their dApps to Rootstock’s blockchain. One other profit that RSK brings to Ethereum dApps, is the discount of transactions’ prices when interacting with the purposes. RSK has its personal method to scalability that permits each a discount in area per transaction and a compression mechanism that enables extra transactions to be bundled in the identical quantity of area.

What Is RSK’s Solidity and the Rootstock Digital Machine?

Rootstock makes use of the identical good contract language as Ethereum – Solidity. Whereas Ethereum’s runtime setting is the Ethereum Digital Machine (EVM), Rootstock has the RVM (Rootstock Digital Machine). Whereas Ethereum has Fuel to facilitate operations on its community, Rootstock has RBTCs which gasoline their good contracts.

The primary profit with RVM over EVM, is the truth that compromised contracts on the Rootstock platform received’t have an effect on Bitcoin’s blockchain. As an alternative, they may have an effect on the Rootstock sidechain which acts as a kind of buffer between Bitcoin. This method to contract safety is why susceptible contracts received’t have the identical impact as they do on ETH. For instance, when the DAO was exploited on Ethereum, the entire community got here to a halt. This has many unfavorable penalties to ETH traders and customers as a result of it renders the entire cryptocurrency unusable till an answer arises.

RSK Strengths and Weaknesses

Rootstock’s important power has to do with safety, as a result of RSK runs as a sidechain of BTC and it creates a really sandboxed setting for dApps. One other power for RSK comes within the type of its RVM which is definitely suitable with Ethereum dApps. Solidity is a particularly intuitive language to study and one which already has many builders. As such, builders can simply create apps for each Rootstock and Ethereum with out the necessity to translate them into totally different languages.

On the opposite facet, RSK continues to be engaged on getting extra use circumstances as Ethereum has most builders and dApps at present engaged on totally different initiatives. The adoption course of (each when it comes to use circumstances and dev instruments and documentation) can be of utmost significance if RSK needs to turn into the primary possibility for good contract builders.


We mentioned 4 good contract platforms: Ethereum, EOS, Cardano and Rootstock. Every platform has its personal advantages in terms of sure purposes. If safety is extraordinarily vital to your utility, then your greatest bets are Cardano or Rootstock. If you’d like probably the most customers to your dApp, your best option is Ethereum. However, if you would like a function wealthy dApp that requires many interactions, EOS is the only option as a result of it has extraordinarily quick transaction speeds.

About Tom Greenly

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